The Impending Catastrophe and How to Combat It

As the economic, social, political, and military crises deepened in the autumn of 1917, Lenin outlined a series of transitional demands, arguing that the socialist transformation of society was the only way out.

WWI—Part Eight: Victims and Aggressors

While the armies of the Great Powers were busy slaughtering each other in Flanders, Tannenberg, and Gallipoli, their weaker brethren were watching with keen anticipation from the sidelines

WWI—Part Seven: Turkey Joins the War

At the turn of the 20th century, the Ottoman Empire was in a state of terminal decline.

WWI—Part Six: Tsarist Russia and the War

In the bloody struggle for world domination Russia entered as a second-rate partner of the Entente. The apparent strength of the Russian Empire concealed its internal contradictions and fundamental weaknesses. Russian tsarism combined elements of […]

WWI—Part Three: The Strange Story of the Kaiser and the Tsar

The Austrian attack on Serbia did not lead immediately to war with Russia. In St. Petersburg the generals were impatient to take action. However, Russian foreign minister Sazonov seems not to have shared the blind […]

WWI—Part Two: On the Brink of the Abyss

Self-styled philosophers of the post-modernist kind deny the possibility of finding any rational explanations for human history. It is alleged that there are no general laws, no objective factors that lie behind the conduct of […]

WWI: Assassination in Sarajevo—The First Shots of the Great Slaughter

One hundred years ago, on 28 June 1914 two pistol shots shattered the peace of a sunny afternoon in Sarajevo. Those shots reverberated around Europe and shattered the peace of the whole world.